The Influence of Computer Technologies on the Mental and Physical Health of the Child: Problems and ways to solve them
Today, more and more attention is being paid to the optimization and individualization of school education. The pedagogical, psychological, physiological and psycho-physiological concepts of training have been developed, in which the issue of individualization and optimization of the educational process is important.
These concepts are the basis for the emergence of new pedagogical practices, including the practice of advanced teaching or performing the custom essay. There is an increase in the number of new schools, including schools that go through advanced training. Studying some subjects at such schools begins earlier than in ordinary general education institutions, and, in particular, the study of the basics of informatics and computer technology often begins in middle classes, and in some schools – in junior grades.
Positive and negative moments
Any system of learning suggests both positive and negative moments. When discussing any system of developmental and advanced training is usually determined, the development of which is exactly the capabilities provided by this system. However, the fact that this system cannot develop is not taken to focus attention. Now there is a tendency to transition to earlier terms of studying many subjects. So, in many schools, the study of computer science begins already in junior grades. Some schools practice computer training.
Using a computer in elementary school involves mostly orientation on game forms, to work with software games and educational-training nature. It is clear that gaming educational activity is very attractive for junior pupils. But the computer-oriented game and educational activities have some specificity.
- Becoming part of the learning process, it brings requirements to the means of obtaining and processing information.
- In particular, a dialogue with a computer implies a significant formalization of direct and reciprocal links.
- Thus, the types of activity are stimulated, “the most convenient” for formalization.
- It is known that the development of activities characteristic of the left hemisphere of the brain, suppresses the right means of information processing.
- The high degree of formalization contradicts the visual-shaped thinking that is characteristic of junior pupils.
There is a trend related to the computer technologies of teaching children of preschool and junior school age, the analysis of which shows that for the implementation of the respective didactic tasks they envisage the enrichment of the curricula by the elements of the game or the construction of learning based on the game. In such cases, the use of multimedia technologies is of particular importance.
When designing and creating syllabuses, you must adhere to the psychological principles of interaction between man and computer: sufficiency of care without excess, adequacy, reasoning, lack of excessive categories, etc. For the maximum positive impact on the formation of the child’s psyche when developing computer programs for children, you should adhere to the following principles:
- Motivational affiliation;
- Cognitive filling;
- Emotional inclusion;
- Matching actions and results.
The use of computer training systems should complement and not deny other forms of learning.
What is educational activity at junior school age?
According to psychologists, at junior school age, educational activity is a leading activity. The advantage of information technology in curriculums nullifies the learning process, as children draw attention to gaming computer elements instead of semantic aspects. Any conscious activity is aimed at the result, and the emotional state is caused by anxiety about the difficulties of the problems that arise, then the relaxation after their successful solution.
Undoubtedly, stresses and chronic anxiety not only reduce the results of learning activities in general but also affect the development and progress of cognitive processes, which causes a delay in the development of the child, affects the formation of its individual style of activity.
Any curriculum must manage the learning process not only by the results of acquiring knowledge but also by the features of the state of the functional system and the influence of it on all channels, including not only sensory but also motor activation. But, if in the process of training put forward requirements that exceed the abilities of the student’s functional system, her inhibition is carried out.
Today, there are hygienic norms for the operation of computers, and for children younger than 12 years of age, these standards provide no more than 10 minutes of continuous work on the computer. Unfortunately, not always these norms are strictly adhered to in the educational process. Modern computer systems, even more than cinema and television, can be a source of entertainment, advertising, containing and undesirable for the direction of teachers and parents. An alarming signal is the increasing proliferation of aggressive content games. Moreover, the study of the problem of media education in the United States has shown that games with aggressive content can stimulate aggressiveness, but only for children of junior school age (6-10 years). That is, children are exposed to the greatest danger of negative influences at a time when the cerebral cortex is not yet fully formed.
The great importance of the development of speech activity has the means used by the teacher while fulfilling various didactic tasks:
- The concentration of attention;
- development of mental processes;
- memory development;
- formation of certain broadcasting standards (text construction, the correctness of pronunciation, etc.)
The above does not detract from the merits of new means of operating information, but you should not neglect the experience of traditional forms of communication and operation of living knowledge.